Friday, November 26, 2010

Lie Detectors

Brain scanner is a lie detector
A medical scan that can pick up brain tumours could also be used to tell whether a person is lying, US researchers have found.

When a person is telling the truth they use different parts of their brain than when people lie, the Temple University team said.

These changes were detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

The method may prove more accurate than traditional machines, they told the Radiological Society of North America.

Liar, liar

The conventional polygraph lie detector looks for body changes linked with lying such as sweating and changes in blood pressure, heart rate and breathing.

But Dr Scott Faro and his team say the accuracy is limited because people who are telling the truth can show similar changes merely as a result of being anxious about being tested.

Furthermore, those adept at lying can learn how to cheat the polygraph test.
“ I'm sure it would be better than the polygraph 
Professor Richard Wiseman, from the University of Hertfordshire
The researchers investigated whether fMRI scans might be able to spot what was happening in the brain when a person was telling a lie.

They asked six of 11 volunteers to fire a toy gun and then lie about what they had done. The other five were asked to tell the truth about what had happened.

Each of the volunteers was then scanned with fMRI while being asked questions by the scientists.
A polygraph test was also carried out for comparison.

In all cases the polygraph and the fMRI accurately distinguished between the volunteers who were telling the truth and those who were lying.

On the brain scans, different areas of the brain were active when the person was lying than when they were telling the truth.

Brain patterns

Also, more areas of the brain were activated when the person was trying to deceive the questioner.

Although it is too early to tell whether confident liars could cheat the fMRI test, Dr Faro is hopeful it could be a more accurate way of spotting deception.

"We plan to investigate the potential of fMRI both as a stand alone test and as a supplement to the polygraph with the goal of creating the most accurate test for deception," he said.

Professor Richard Wiseman, from the Psychology Department at the University of Hertfordshire and who has carried out research into lie detection, said: "I'm sure it would be better than the polygraph.

"The problem with the polygraph is it's a measure of how anxious somebody is.

"Lots of people become anxious when they are attached to the polygraph anyway and good liars are not anxious when they lie.

"With fMRI you are looking at the brain's activity and lying is cognitively quite hard.

"You are having to think what is plausible, what does the person know, what can they go and check on, and so on.

"So, in terms of brain activity, the indicators are likely to be more reliable."

He said the only shortfall was how practical it was to use fMRI routinely because it requires the patient to remain relatively still inside a large, expensive tube-like machine which performs the scanning.

"It's not the sort of thing every police station has in the back, but in the future, potentially in high profile cases, it might be something people want to look at," he said.

Story from BBC NEWS:
Published: 2004/11/30 01:46:14 GMT  © BBC 2013

Brain fingerprints under scrutiny
By Becky McCall 
in Seattle 
A controversial technique for identifying a criminal mind using involuntary brainwaves that could reveal guilt or innocence is about to take centre stage in a last-chance court appeal against a death-row conviction in the US.

The technique, called "brain fingerprinting", has already been tested by the FBI and has now become part of the key evidence to overturn the murder conviction of Jimmy Ray Slaughter who is facing execution in Oklahoma.

Brain Fingerprinting, developed by Dr Larry Farwell, chief scientist and founder of Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, is a method of reading the brain's involuntary electrical activity in response to a subject being shown certain images relating to a crime.

Unlike the polygraph or lie detector to which it is often compared, the accuracy of this technology lies in its ability to pick up the electrical signal, known as a p300 wave, before the suspect has time to affect the output.

"It is highly scientific, brain fingerprinting doesn't have anything to do with the emotions, whether a person is sweating or not; it simply detects scientifically if that information is stored in the brain," says Dr Farwell.
"It doesn't depend upon the subjective interpretation of the person conducting the test. The computer monitors the information and comes up with information present or information absent."
“ brain fingerprinting doesn't have anything to do with the emotions, whether a person is sweating or not; it simply detects scientifically if that information is stored in the brain 
Dr Larry Farwell
Brain fingerprinting is admissible in court for use in identifying or exonerating individuals in the US.

Maximum security

A few days ago Dr Farwell ran the test on Jimmy Ray Slaughter at the maximum security state prison in Oklahoma.

A jury convicted Slaughter of shooting, stabbing and mutilating his former girlfriend, Melody Wuertz, and of shooting to death their eleven-month old-daughter, Jessica.

The crimes for which he is sentenced to death took place in a house that he is very familiar with. The results were revealing.

"Jimmy Ray Slaughter did not know where in the house the murder took place; he didn't know where the mother's body was lying or what was on her clothing at the time of death - a salient fact in the case," says Dr Farwell.

During the test, the suspect wears a headband equipped with sensors to measure activity in response to recognition of an image relating to the crime - for example, a murder weapon or possibly a code word in the case of a spy.

"In research with the FBI, we presented words and phrases that only an FBI agent would know and we could tell by the brain responses who was an FBI agent and who was not; we could do that with 100% accuracy," says Dr Farwell.

Brain Fingerprinting has profound implications for the criminal justice system.

Any decision relies on more than just the outcome of a forensic test such as brain fingerprinting. However, in the light of these findings, the case for appeal hopes that Slaughter will either be granted a pardon, clemency or a retrial.

Critics of brain fingerprinting believe it needs far more refinement before its use becomes widespread and cases are won and lost on its evidence.

Needless to say, Dr Farwell disagrees.

"What I can say definitively from a scientific standpoint, is that Jimmy Ray Slaughter's brain does not contain a record of some of the most salient details about the murder for which he's been convicted and sentenced to death," says Dr Farwell.

Story from BBC NEWS:
Published: 2004/02/17 10:47:43 GMT
© BBC 2013

Friday, November 12, 2010

US & al-Qaeda used to be buddies

U.S. supported al-Qaeda cells during Balkan Wars
Isabel Vincent. National Post. Don Mills, Ont.: Mar 15, 2002. pg. A.18

Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda terrorist network has been active in the Balkans for years, most recently helping Kosovo rebels battle for independence from Serbia with the financial and military backing of the United States and NATO.

The claim that al-Qaeda played a role in the Balkan wars of the 1990s came from an alleged FBI document former Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic presented in his defence before the Hague tribunal last week. Mr. Milosevic faces 66 counts of war crimes and genocide.

Although Hague prosecutors have challenged the veracity of the document, which Mr. Milosevic identified as a Congressional statement from the FBI dated last December, Balkan experts say the presence of al-Qaeda militants in Kosovo and Bosnia is well documented.

Today, al-Qaeda members are helping the National Liberation Army, a rebel group in Macedonia, fight the Skopje government in a bid for independence, military analysts say. Last week, Michael Steiner, the United Nations administrator in Kosovo, warned of "importing the Afghan danger to Europe" because several cells trained and financed by al-Qaeda remain in the region.

"Many members of the Kosovo Liberation Army were sent for training in terrorist camps in Afghanistan," said James Bissett, former Canadian ambassador to Yugoslavia and an expert on the Balkans. "Milosevic is right. There is no question of their participation in conflicts in the Balkans. It is very well documented."

The arrival in the Balkans of the so-called Afghan Arabs, who are from various Middle Eastern states and linked to al-Qaeda, began in 1992 soon after the war in Bosnia. According to Lenard Cohen, professor of political science at Simon Fraser University, mujahedeen fighters who travelled to Afghanistan to resist the Soviet occupation in the 1980s later "migrated to Bosnia hoping to assist their Islamic brethren in a struggle against Serbian [and for a time] Croatian forces."

The Bosnian Muslims welcomed their assistance. After the Bosnian war, "hundreds of Bosnian passports were provided to the mujahedeen by the Muslim-controlled government in Sarajevo," said Prof. Cohen in a recent article titled Bin Laden and the war in the Balkans. Many al-Qaeda members decided to stay in the region after marrying local Muslim women, he said.

They also set up secret terrorist training camps in Bosnia -- activities financed by the sale of opium produced in Afghanistan and secretly shipped through Turkey and Kosovo into central Europe.

In the years immediately before the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999, the al-Qaeda militants moved into Kosovo, the southern province of Serbia, to help ethnic Albanian extremists of the KLA mount their terrorist campaign against Serb targets in the region.

The mujahedeen "were financed by Saudi and United Arab Emirates money," said one Western military official, asking anonymity. "They were mercenaries who were not running the show in Kosovo, but were used by the KLA to do their dirty work."

The United States, which had originally trained the Afghan Arabs during the war in Afghanistan, supported them in Bosnia and then in Kosovo. When NATO forces launched their military campaign against Yugoslavia three years ago to unseat Mr. Milosevic, they entered the Kosovo conflict on the side of the KLA, which had already received "substantial" military and financial support from bin Laden's network, analysts say.

In the wake of the Sept. 11 terrorist strikes on the United States, NATO began to worry about the presence in the Balkans of the Islamist terrorist cells it had supported throughout the 1990s.

FBI imformant inside first WTC bombing terrorist cell

Publication Image
Plot Warning Is Reviewed By the F.B.I.
BLUMENTHAL, RALPH. New York Times. Oct 29, 1993. pg. B.1

(Italics and bold-face added)

The Federal Bureau of Investigation is reviewing the allegations of an informer who said after the World Trade Center explosion that he had warned law-enforcement agents of a plot to build a bomb, and that if they had worked with him, they would have prevented the blast, officials said.

But some officials disputed important parts of the informant's account yesterday, saying that conversations with him took place half a year before the attack on the trade center, and months before the bomb was actually built.

The comments of the informer, Emad A. Salem, are in transcripts of telephone conversations with the police and F.B.I. agents that Mr. Salem secretly recorded. In the transcripts, Mr. Salem is quoted as saying that the bombing could have been foiled but for an F.B.I. supervisor's rejection of a plan to have him work with the plotters building the bomb, then substitute harmless powder for the explosives.

The review of Mr. Salem's allegations that has been undertaken by the F.B.I. is not a formal investigation. The Justice Department's Office of Professional Responsibility, which looks into suspected ethical lapses, has not been called in, officials said. The officials spoke on the condition of anonymity. Reno Declines to Comment

Asked repeatedly about the allegations at her regular news briefing in Washington yesterday, Attorney General Janet Reno declined comment, citing the trial in Manhattan Federal Court of four men charged with the Feb. 26 blast that killed six. In court at that trial yesterday, defense lawyers sought copies of the informer's transcripts. [ Article, page B4. ]

Spokesmen for the new F.B.I. director, Louis J. Freeh, also said they were barred from making any response about the informer's allegations. But other bureau officials acknowledged that an internal inquiry into the handling of Mr. Salem and his information was under way. They said it did not suggest any wrongdoing.

Representative Charles E. Schumer of Brooklyn, chairman of the subcommittee on crime and criminal justice, wrote Ms. Reno yesterday that the panel would call her and Mr. Freeh to testify at a hearing on the F.B.I.'s handling of the trade center bombing and other counterterrorism issues. Mr. Schumer said he would wait until after the trial to convene that hearing.

Senator Alfonse M. D'Amato, who was himself a target of a terrorist assassination plot, according to Government charges in the related bombing case, said yesterday that he was confident that Mr. Freeh would conduct an inquiry into the matter. "No one has to ask him," he said.

The Salem tapes emerged as a volatile issue this week when the Government, under the Federal court's rules of evidence, turned over 903 pages of transcripts from 45 tape cassettes to defense lawyers representing 15 defendants charged with plotting to blow up city landmarks in the second bombing case. Transcripts of another 25 tapes have been withheld for "security and other issues," prosecutors said.

The transcripts, which Federal Judge Michael B. Mukasey barred the lawyers from disseminating but which were reviewed by The New York Times and other newspapers, quote Mr. Salem complaining to F.B.I. agents that "I told you the World Trade Center," among other planned targets, "but nobody listened." Foiled His Chance

One unnamed F.B.I. supervisor in particular, Mr. Salem says, forced him into the role of witness and thus foiled his chance to remain under cover and be "building the bomb with a phony powder and grabbing the people who was involved in it."

But the officials who spoke on condition of anonymity disputed Mr. Salem's account yesterday. For one thing, they said, although he had begun working for the F.B.I. in late 1991, he and the bureau had angrily parted ways in the middle of 1992 and did not resume contact until after the bombing the following February.

Contrary to Mr. Salem's repeated tape-recorded protestations after the bombing, they said, he had not warned them that the trade center was to be attacked; nor, they said, could he have done that by the time his relationship to the bureau was interrupted, half a year before the attack. Link to Suspects

It took the tracing of a vehicle part found in the wreckage six days after the explosion to link the bombing to the suspects whom Mr. Salem had earlier cultivated, the officials said.

The sequence of events was confirmed yesterday by Mr. Salem's former wife, Barbara Rodgers, who said he had not been in touch with the F.B.I. for many months before the bombing.

Ms. Rodgers also said that to gain favor with the F.B.I. early on, Mr. Salem gave agents videotapes from Egypt showing supporters of Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman and other Muslim extremists. The sheik is at the heart of the second bombing trial.

One law-enforcement official said yesterday that there was dismay in the F.B.I. over how Mr. Salem caught agents' ready affirmations on tape to his complaints that the bureau had mishandled the trade center bombing. "We all wish they wouldn't have said, 'yeah, yeah,' said the official ruefully. Officials have said the agents may have been trying simply to mollify their often combative and flighty informant.

Officials declined to identify the supervisor Mr. Salem complains about as being responsible for not following through on a plan that would have thwarted the blast, and said no one was facing discipline as a result of the allegations. Basis for Dispute

They said that dispute with the informer was based on the supervisor's proper insistence that Mr. Salem, whose information had not always proved reliable, wear a hidden body recorder to gather evidence so he could take the witness stand in a trial.

Although out of touch with the F.B.I. for half a year before the bombing, Mr. Salem continued to circulate in Muslim militant circles and thus may have picked up information about the pending attack, officials said. But, they said, he did not turn it over until after the bombing, when he re-established his relationship with the F.B.I.

All WAG THE DOG readings

Daily Mail
CLINTON'S REVENGE: But was his real target the Arab terrorists or Lewinsky's testimony?
Ian Cobain Aug 21, 1998
PRESIDENT Clinton unleashed up to 100 cruise missiles against Sudan and Afghanistan yesterday to avert what he claimed was 'an immediate threat' of terrorist attack.
He said he had 'compelling evidence' that fanatical Islamic terrorist leaders were holding a summit to plan further atrocities against the U.S. in the wake of the embassy bombings two weeks ago.
'Our target was terror. Our mission was clear,' he told the American people in a televised address last night.
But there was massive cynicism about the timing, at the end of the toughest week of his career, and announced just as Monica Lewinsky emerged from giving more evidence about their affair to the Grand Jury.
His Defence Secretary William Cohen even faced accusations that the attacks were inspired by the recent Hollywood comedy Wag The Dog, in which an embattled President launches a 'pretend war' to distract attention from a sex scandal. The scenario echoed events in the New Year, just as the Lewinsky story was first breaking, when Clinton ordered a massive build-up of forces in the Gulf against Saddam Hussein.
It was unclear last night whether the strikes, launched from warships in the Gulf and and the Red Sea, would save him from political ruin or simply add to his troubles. While many key political figures, including some of his severest critics, backed his action, others questioned his 'diversionary tactics'.
But the main target, terrorist mastermind Osama bin Laden, was reported to have survived unscathed.
The hugely wealthy Saudi Arabian is widely suspected of bankrolling the embassy attacks two weeks ago in Tanzania and Kenya in which 300 died, including 12 Americans, and thousands were injured.
Clinton accused bin Laden of having previously plotted to kill the Pope, assassinate Egyptian leader Hosni Mubarak, and blow up American airliners.
His followers, an estimated 5,000 throughout the Middle East, are strongly suspected to have been responsible for two recent bomb attacks on U.S. military bases in Saudi Arabia in which more than 20 servicemen died.
Bin Laden is believed to have a huge arsenal of weapons in Afghanistan, including antiaircraft missiles and tanks.
'We had compelling evidence the bin Laden group was planning other attacks against Americans and other freedom-loving people,' said Clinton.
At 6.30pm British time, the first strike was launched against the Saudi exile's HQ in a remote mountainous region in the south of Afghanistan.
Targets included his main supply depot, a nearby training camp, and three other sites which the Tal-iban militia which controls most of the country had allowed him to establish. But Israeli technicians who have been monitoring the Afghan airwaves for more than a week heard his voice - shocked, fearful, but apparently still promising vengeance against his enemies - hours after the bombers had gone home.
The raids were timed to coincide with another in Sudan on a suspected chemical weapons plant on the Khartoum outskirts, which Mr Cohen said was run by 'bin Laden's terrorist organisations'.
But interior minister Abdul Rahim said the plant was a privately- owned pharmaceuticals factory and insisted: 'There are no chemical weapons plants in my country - none. This is a disgraceful attack.' British teacher Paul Bartlett, who drove by after the attack, said: 'We saw big flames which were out of control. ' Seven people were reported injured. Shortly afterwards television reports showed angry crowds thronging the site with riot police holding them back.
Pentagon officials refused to disclose details of the strikes but said that between 75 and 100 missiles were involved.
Clinton broke off his holiday in Martha's Vineyard to announce the action, saying: 'Today we have struck back.
'These groups have executed terrorist attacks against Americans in the past. We have convincing evidence these groups played the key role in the embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. Terrorists must have no doubt that in the face of their threat, America will protect its citizens,' he said before flying to Washington to address the nation.' U.S. politicians traditionally rally behind their president in such a crisis, but in an extraordinary break with Congressional tradition, some urged him to quit.
Dan Coats, a Republican senator from Indiana, said: 'I think the timing is extraordinary. The reaction of the President is so uncharacteristic of anything he has done in the six years of his presidency that it raises legitimate questions.
'He has broken the bond of trust that is necessary for any president to be effective as leader of the free world, and I think that places the United States in a dangerous situation.
'Was there a diversionary motive here? The President has obvious problems and I want know why this was done now. This is a question that will be asked around the world.' But House speaker Newt Gingrich backed the air raids, and said he had been expecting the action for several days.
Defence Secretary William Cohen insisted: 'The only motivation behind this was our absolute obligation to protect the American people from terrorist activities.
'We are engaged in a very difficult confrontation with the forces of international terrorism. The strike was designed to attack bin Laden's infrastructure and that's precisely what we have done.
'We have taken these actions to reduce the ability of these terrorist organisations to train and equip their misguided followers.
'Those who attack our people will find no safe place, no refuge from the long arm of justice.' Nevertheless, it seemed like an incredible coincidence that the strikes should take place on the very day that Miss Lewinsky was called back to testify again before the Grand Jury, just days after Clinton's humiliating admission that he had lied about their affair.
She was just leaving the court when the TV networks suddenly interrupted programmes to broadcast Clinton's dramatic announcement.
But officials were saying that planning for the attacks began seven days ago.
It took a week to get the warships in place and once there it was considered imperative to act immediately before word leaked out to the terrorists.
Remarkably, this is the second time Clinton has been able to push his sex scandal off the front pages with a foreign policy action.
In January and February of this year he ordered a massive buildup of forces in the Gulf in response to a refusal by Saddam Hussein to let U.N. weapons inspectors investigate suspected nuclear and chemical weapons sites.

'She Was Fighting to the Death'; Details Emerging of W. Va. Soldier's Capture and Rescue:[FINAL Edition]
Susan Schmidt and Vernon Loeb. The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: Apr 3, 2003. pg. A.01
Pfc. Jessica Lynch, rescued Tuesday from an Iraqi hospital, fought fiercely and shot several enemy soldiers after Iraqi forces ambushed the Army's 507th Ordnance Maintenance Company, firing her weapon until she ran out of ammunition, U.S. officials said yesterday.
Lynch, a 19-year-old supply clerk, continued firing at the Iraqis even after she sustained multiple gunshot wounds and watched several other soldiers in her unit die around her in fighting March 23, one official said. The ambush took place after a 507th convoy, supporting the advancing 3rd Infantry Division, took a wrong turn near the southern city of Nasiriyah.
"She was fighting to the death," the official said. "She did not want to be taken alive."
Lynch was also stabbed when Iraqi forces closed in on her position, the official said, noting that initial intelligence reports indicated that she had been stabbed to death. No official gave any indication yesterday, however, that Lynch's wounds had been life-threatening.
Several officials cautioned that the precise sequence of events is still being determined, and that further information will emerge as Lynch is debriefed. Reports thus far are based on battlefield intelligence, they said, which comes from monitored communications and from Iraqi sources in Nasiriyah whose reliability has yet to be assessed. Pentagon officials said they had heard "rumors" of Lynch's heroics but had no confirmation.

Saving Private Lynch story 'flawed'
By John Kampfner
Private Jessica Lynch became an icon of the war, and the story of her capture by the Iraqis and her rescue by US special forces became one of the great patriotic moments of the conflict.
But her story is one of the most stunning pieces of news management ever conceived.
Private Lynch, a 19-year-old army clerk from Palestine, West Virginia, was captured when her company took a wrong turning just outside Nasiriya and was ambushed.
Nine of her comrades were killed and Private Lynch was taken to the local hospital, which at the time was swarming with Fedayeen. Eight days later US special forces stormed the hospital, capturing the "dramatic" events on a night vision camera.
They were said to have come under fire from inside and outside the building, but they made it to Lynch and whisked her away by helicopter.

There was no [sign of] shooting, no bullet inside her body, no stab wound
Dr Harith a-Houssona Reports claimed that she had stab and bullet wounds and that she had been slapped about on her hospital bed and interrogated.
But Iraqi doctors in Nasiriya say they provided the best treatment they could for the soldier in the midst of war. She was assigned the only specialist bed in the hospital and one of only two nurses on the floor.
"I examined her, I saw she had a broken arm, a broken thigh and a dislocated ankle," said Dr Harith a-Houssona, who looked after her.
Jessica amnesia
"There was no [sign of] shooting, no bullet inside her body, no stab wound - only road traffic accident. They want to distort the picture. I don't know why they think there is some benefit in saying she has a bullet injury."
Witnesses told us that the special forces knew that the Iraqi military had fled a day before they swooped on the hospital.
"We were surprised. Why do this? There was no military, there were no soldiers in the hospital," said Dr Anmar Uday, who worked at the hospital.
"It was like a Hollywood film. They cried 'go, go, go', with guns and blanks without bullets, blanks and the sound of explosions. They made a show for the American attack on the hospital - action movies like Sylvester Stallone or Jackie Chan."
There was one more twist. Two days before the snatch squad arrived, Harith had arranged to deliver Jessica to the Americans in an ambulance.
But as the ambulance, with Private Lynch inside, approached a checkpoint American troops opened fire, forcing it to flee back to the hospital. The Americans had almost killed their prize catch.
When footage of the rescue was released, General Vincent Brooks, US spokesman in Doha, said: "Some brave souls put their lives on the line to make this happen, loyal to a creed that they know that they'll never leave a fallen comrade."
The American strategy was to ensure the right television footage by using embedded reporters and images from their own cameras, editing the film themselves.
The Pentagon had been influenced by Hollywood producers of reality TV and action movies, notably the man behind Black Hawk Down, Jerry Bruckheimer.
Bruckheimer advised the Pentagon on the primetime television series "Profiles from the Front Line", that followed US forces in Afghanistan in 2001. That approached was taken on and developed on the field of battle in Iraq.
As for Private Lynch, her status as cult hero is stronger than ever. Internet auction sites list Jessica Lynch items, from an oil painting with an opening bid of $200 to a $5 "America Loves Jessica Lynch" fridge magnet.
But doctors now say she has no recollection of the whole episode and probably never will.
Story from BBC NEWS:
Published: 2003/05/15 08:50:39 GMT


ABC News Primetime Thursday, November 6, 2003

Jessica Lynch Interview: I'm No Hero
In the interview, Lynch also clears up conflicting stories about her actions during the March 23 ambush in which Lynch was taken prisoner. Initial reports portrayed the Army supply clerk, then 19, as a hero who was wounded by Iraqi gunfire but kept firing until her ammunition ran out, shooting several Iraqis.
But Lynch confirms that was not the case. She tells Sawyer she was just a soldier in the wrong place at the wrong time, whose gun jammed during the chaos. "I'm not about to take credit for something I didn't do," she tells Sawyer in the interview, airing Tuesday, Nov. 11.
"I did not shoot, not a round, nothing," she tells Sawyer. "When we were told to lock and load, that's when my weapon jammed É I did not shoot a single round É I went down praying to my knees. And that's the last I remember."
Lynch, now 20, says she feels hurt to have received praise she says her colleagues deserved. "It hurt in a way that people would make up stories that they had no truth about. They did not know whether I did that or not. Only I would have been able to know that, because the other four people on my vehicle aren't here to tell that story. So I would have been the only one able to say, 'Yeah, I went down shooting.' But I didn't. I did not."
Lynch described the moments of the ambush as terror and confusion. "Once it started, it was just chaos," she said, adding, "You could hear them [bullets] bouncing off our vehicle. You could hear people screaming. It was scary, so scary."
She said her convoy was surrounded by Iraqi attackers: "They were coming from everywhere. We had vehicles getting stuck, vehicles running out of gas É our weapons were jamming."
Her unit was ambushed after missing a turn and becoming separated from the convoy they were traveling in. "We weren't thinking quickly. We were so tired, we were hungry É it was just a mistake," Lynch said.

Tillman Killed by 'Friendly Fire'; Probe Cites Error Platoon Mates:[FINAL Edition]
Josh White. The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: May 30, 2004. pg. A.01
Pat Tillman, the former pro football player, was killed by other American troops in a "friendly fire" episode in Afghanistan last month and not by enemy bullets, according to a U.S. investigation of the incident.
New details released yesterday about Tillman's death indicate that he was gunned down by members of his elite Army Ranger platoon who mistakenly shot in his direction when the unit was ambushed. According to a summary of the Army investigation, a Ranger squad leader mistook an allied Afghan Militia Force soldier standing near Tillman as the enemy, and he and other U.S. soldiers opened fire, killing both men.

That Tillman, 27, wasn't killed by enemy fire in a heroic rescue attempt was a major revelation by the U.S. military more than a month after the April 22 incident, which the Pentagon and members of Congress had hailed as an example of combat bravery. Tillman's sacrifice of millions of dollars when he left the National Football League's Arizona Cardinals to become a soldier has been held up as a stark contrast to the prison scandal in Iraq.
Shortly after his death, Army officials awarded Tillman a Silver Star for combat valor and a Purple Heart. He also was promoted from specialist to corporal. They said Tillman was killed while charging at the enemy up a hill, allowing the rest of his platoon to escape alive.


First, a vehicle with Tillman's unit broke down and the platoon mechanic could not fix it. Then, without air resources to lift the vehicle out of the area, the soldiers decided to tow the vehicle as they moved to their next assignment. On April 22, the soldiers split the platoon, sending a working vehicle ahead while Tillman's unit towed the disabled one, slowing it down, according to a spokesman for the U.S. Central Command in Florida.
"Approximately 30 minutes after the platoon split off in their separate directions, the section with the non-mission capable vehicle was ambushed by anti-coalition forces," the summary said. "Hearing the engagement, the other section of the platoon maneuvered to the location of the ambush and engaged in the fight."
It was then that the Afghan soldier was mistaken for the enemy and was killed when the other half of the platoon returned. Tillman, who was by his side, also was shot, the report said.
Military officials could not explain the discrepancy between earlier reports and the releases yesterday, saying that a month- long investigation into the attack helped clarify the events. The investigation reports that Tillman was killed after he got out of his vehicle and fought about a dozen insurgents in restricted terrain and in poor light conditions.

December 28, 2002

How Bush Sr. Sold the Bombing of Iraq

"The U.S. has a new credibility. What we say goes."
President George Bush, NBC Nightly News, Feb. 2, 1991
In October, 1990, a 15-year-old Kuwaiti girl, identified only as Nayirah, appeared in Washington before the House of Representatives' Human Rights Caucus. She testified that Iraqi soldiers who had invaded Kuwait on August 2nd tore hundreds of babies from hospital incubators and killed them.
Television flashed her testimony around the world. It electrified opposition to Iraq's president, Saddam Hussein, who was now portrayed by U.S. president George Bush not only as "the Butcher of Baghdad" but -- so much for old friends -- "a tyrant worse than Hitler."
Bush quoted Nayirah at every opportunity. Six times in one month he referred to "312 premature babies at Kuwait City's maternity hospital who died after Iraqi soldiers stole their incubators and left the infants on the floor,"(1) and of "babies pulled from incubators and scattered like firewood across the floor." Bush used Nayirah's testimony to lambaste Senate Democrats still supporting "only" sanctions against Iraq -- the blockade of trade which alone would cause hundreds of thousands of Iraqis to die of hunger and disease -- but who waffled on endorsing the policy Bush wanted to implement: outright bombardment. Republicans and pro-war Democrats used Nayirah's tale to hammer their fellow politicians into line behind Bush's war in the Persian Gulf.(2)
Nayirah, though, was no impartial eyewitness, a fact carefully concealed by her handlers. She was the daughter of one Saud Nasir Al-Sabah, Kuwait's ambassador to the United States. A few key Congressional leaders and reporters knew who Nayirah was, but none of them thought of sharing that minor detail with Congress, let alone the American people.
Everything Nayirah said, as it turned out, was a lie. There were, in actuality, only a handful of incubators in all of Kuwait, certainly not the "hundreds" she claimed. According to Dr. Mohammed Matar, director of Kuwait's primary care system, and his wife, Dr. Fayeza Youssef, who ran the obstetrics unit at the maternity hospital, there were few if any babies in the incubators at the time of the Iraqi invasion. Nayirah's charges, they said, were totally false. "I think it was just something for propaganda," Dr. Matar said. In an ABC-TV News account after the war, John Martin reported that although "patients, including premature babies, did die," this occurred "when many of Kuwait's nurses and doctors stopped working or fled the country" -- a far cry from Bush's original assertion that hundreds of babies were murdered by Iraqi troops.(3) Subsequent investigations, including one by Amnesty International, found no evidence for the incubator claims.
It is likely that Nayirah was not even in Kuwait, let alone at the hospital, at that time; the Kuwaiti aristocracy and their families had fled the country weeks before the anticipated invasion. Some defended their country at the gaming tables in Monte Carlo, where at least one member of the ruling family was reported to have gambled away more than $10 million as his fellow rulers called for economic and military assistance from abroad.
As invasions go, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait was relatively -- I stress the word "relatively" -- bloodless. Despite the heart-rending testimonies TV viewers in the U.S. were subjected to night after night, fewer than 200 Kuwaitis were killed. Compare that to such "peaceful" ventures as the U.S. invasion of Panama the year before, which killed an estimated 7,500 Panamanians; or, a year after the Gulf war, the 10,000 Somalis killed by . troops in what was portrayed as a "peace mission" to bring food aid to the allegedly starving region.(4)
How did Nayirah first come to the attention of the Congressional Human Rights Caucus, which put her before the world's cameras? It was arranged by Hill & Knowlton, a public relations firm hired to rally the U.S. populace behind Bush's policy of going to war. And it worked!
Hill & Knowlton's yellow ribbon campaign to whip up support for "our" troops, which followed their orchestration of Nayirah's phony "incubator" testimony, was a public relations masterpiece. The claim that satellite photos revealed that Iraq had troops poised to strike Saudi Arabia was also fabricated by the PR firm. Hill & Knowlton was paid between $12 million (as reported two years later on "60 Minutes") and $20 million (as reported on "20/20") for "services rendered." The group fronting the money? Citizens for a Free Kuwait, a phony "human rights agency" set up and funded entirely by Kuwait's emirocracy to promote its interests in the U.S.
"When Hill & Knowlton masterminded the Kuwaiti campaign to sell the Gulf War to the American public, the owners of this highly effective propaganda machine were residing in another country" -- the United Kingdom -- writes Sharon Beder and Richard Gosden in PR Watch. "Should this give pause for thought? Does it demonstrate a certain potential for the future exercise of global political power -- the power to manipulate democratic political processes through managing public opinion," which Hill and Knowlton demonstrated 10 years ago?(5)
All of this is concealed in a new HBO "behind-the-scenes true story" of the Gulf War, which is being released at this crucial political moment. As Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting writes, "HBO's version of history never makes clear that the incubator story was fraudulent, and in fact had been managed by an American PR firm, not Iraq. Curiously, however, the truth seems to have been clear to Robert Wiener, the former CNN producer who co-wrote 'Live from Baghdad.'As he explained to CNN's Wolf Blitzer (11/21/02), 'that story turned out to be false because those accusations were made by the daughter of the Kuwaiti minister of information and were never proven.' Unfortunately, HBO viewers won't know that when they see the film."(6)
In 1998, Hill and Knowlton found a new client -- President Clinton -- who hired them to advise him and to polish his image. The last time they were involved, by the time their lies were exposed TV newscasters were waxing ecstatic over the rockets' red glare, computerized "smart-bombs" bursting in air, and 250,000 people were dead.
Mitchel Cohen is the co-editor of Green Politix, the national newspaper of the Greens/Green Party USA. He can be reached at:
1. Doug Ireland, Village Voice, March 26, 1991.
2. The use of the Big Lie to manipulate public opinion and neutralize opposition to a particular war was not invented by Bush. See, for instance, James Laxer, "Iraq: US has match, seeks kindle: American leaders have often falsified reasons to attack other countries," (ActionGreens, Mar. 31, 2001). Laxer is a Political Science Professor at York University, Toronto.
3. ABC World News Tonight, 3/15/91.
4. In actuality, people in only certain areas of Somalia were starving -- those that had been subjected to IMF structural adjustment programs. See, Mitchel Cohen, "Somalia & the Cynical Manipulation of Hunger," Red Balloon Collective, 1994.
5. Sharon Beder and Richard Gosden, "PR Watch," Volume 8, No. 2, 2nd Quarter 2001. The PR firm has since been working at the behest of the pharmaceutical industry to ban over-the-counter vitamin and nutritional supplement sales in Europe.
6. Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, "HBO Recycling Gulf War Hoax?" December 4, 2002.

Reagan on Grenada Excerpt

President Reagan spoke to the nation on live television on October 27th, 1983 regarding the bombing in Lebanon and the liberation of Grenada.

The Grenada portion of the speech below came after the part on barracks bombing in Lebanon that killed over 200 Marines, the greatest one day loss of US troops since World War II. The excerpt below is the end of the speech.
May I share something with you I think you'd like to know? It's something that happened toreagan, grenada speech the Commandant of our Marine Corps, General Paul Kelley, while he was visiting our critically injured marines in an Air Force hospital. It says more than any of us could ever hope to say about the gallantry and heroism of these young men, young men who serve so willingly so that others might have a chance at peace and freedom in their own lives and in the life of their country.
I'll let General Kelley's words describe the incident. He spoke of a "young marine with more tubes going in and out of his body than I have ever seen in one body."
"He couldn't see very well. He reached up and grabbed my four stars, just to make sure I was who I said I was. He held my hand with a firm grip. He was making signals, and we realized he wanted to tell me something. We put a pad of paper in his hand—and he wrote Semper Fi."
Well, if you've been a marine or if, like myself, you're an admirer of the marines, you know those words are a battle cry, a greeting, and a legend in the Marine Corps. They're marine shorthand for the motto of the Corps—Semper Fidelis—"always faithful."
General Kelley has a reputation for being a very sophisticated general and a very tough marine. But he cried when he saw those words, and who can blame him? That marine and all those others like him living and dead, have been faithful to their ideals. They've given willingly of them selves so that a nearly defenseless people in a region of great strategic importance to the free world will have a chance someday to live lives free of murder and mayhem and terrorism. I think that young marine and all of his comrades have given every one of us something to live up to.
They were not afraid to stand up for their country or, no matter how difficult and slow the journey might be, to give to others that last, best hope of a better future. We cannot and will not dishonor them now and the sacrifices they've made by failing to remain as faithful to the cause of freedom and the pursuit of peace as they have been.
I will not ask you to pray for the dead, because they're safe in God's loving arms and beyond need of our prayers. I would like to ask you all—wherever you may be in this blessed land—to pray for these wounded young men and to pray for the bereaved families of those who gave their lives for our freedom.
God bless you, and God bless America.

English 21B

English 21B

***Santa Monica College Eng 21B 
Student Data  Winter 2017***
eCompanion access

American Heritage Dictionary


Student Activism Research


The Matrix, Wag the Dog, & The Siege Readings

Wag the Dog

***All Wag the Dog Readings***
Wag the Dog cast & plot

The Matrix

***Can we grow people in a tank like Neo***

***Looking through Cats' Eyes***

***2013 Bionic Eye***

***Memory Chip for Your Brain***

***Mind Reading Computer***
 ***Remote Control Rat***

***Quadriplegics Move Robotic 
Arms with Their Thoughts***


First Electronic Eye for Blind

The Computer That Makes You Smarter

Instant Learning

Vision of the Future

Reading Your Dog's Mind

Mind Reading Computer

Putting Images in the Brain

Brain control headset for gamers

Seeing the Brain Lie

Recognizing the Scene of the Crime

Computer that reads your intentions

Memory Chip

The Siege

Raid on an Indian restaurant

Post-9/11 Immigrant Roundup Backfired

Tortured American Jose Padilla

Tortured Genitals

FBI Informant Lived with Hijackers

FBI Informant Gave '93
WTC Bombers Explosives

Al Qaeda Worked with US
in Afghanistan & Balkans

Martial Law & Posse Comitatus

Warrants to Listen?


How to Become a Student Activist

From Dictatorship to Democracy
strategies & tactics for activists 

Readings & Video

Propaganda Methods

Barry on Beer

Propaganda Article in Wikipedia

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs



Beverly Hillbillies Winston

Flintstones' Winston




Morning in America

Obama Ads




McCain Ads


Never Surrender

Obama Celebrity

Other Candidates

Bush Sr. Ads

Bill Clinton Ads

Ross Perot Ads


Mean Joe Green

I'd Like To Teach The World To Sing

Coca -Cola Christmas: Arctic Beach Party


You've Got a Lot to Give

Simply Irresistible

Britney Spears

Litter PSAs

Crying Indian

Woodsy Owl: Who Will?

Unsecured Loads: Litter and It Will Hurt

Print Ads

Pick an era & 3 ads for same product


The Guardian (publicly funded paper in UK)

(a source the rest of the world trusts)

Al Jazeera
(like the BBC, but closer to the action)

Democracy Now!
90.7 FM
6-7 am, 9-10 am, M-F
The best hour of news
everyday it's on

(documentary series on
PBS, lots of foreign policy,
corporate issues, etc.)

History News Network

should more accurately be
called history AND news.
Historians and experts
post articles on both.

Pick a President

Project Vote Smart
(a good starting point for
comparing candidates records)


Sunday, November 7, 2010

SMC English 1 & VC English 1A

SMC English 1 &
VC English 1A

***Writing Process Homework***
 Dershowitz Argument Homework

SMC Online Databases
handout on using databases

VC Online Databases

Definition Links


The Torture Memos
UN Convention Against Torture Part 1 Articles 1-3
CIA Torture Research
Brits & US use sex torture
Abu Ghraib story
More Hersh on Abu Ghraib
Hersh on rape at Abu Ghraib
VIDEO: Third Party Torture on 24
genitals cut with a scalpel
more on the cut guy

The Dark Art of Interrogation
a broader overview of methods

VIDEO: Torture Memo Author Asked if
President Can Bury Someone Alive

Date Rape

military definition
Antioch College definition
Kobe Bryant in a nutshell

Academic Freedom

CULPA student reviews of Prof. Massad

Sexual Harassment

CNN: Sexual Harassment: Serious, Subtle, Stubborn College of the Canyons 2

Fallacy & Propaganda links

FM 33-1

Wikipedia Propaganda Methods

second best

the Propaganda Game
(a fairly exhaustive list
with good examples)


Mission Critical
(scroll down to fallacies
section. This one has some
interactive exercises)

 Fallacies Exercise Homework

Propaganda Links

9/11 Commission Report 

Chilcot Iraq Inquiry

The Rock movie plot 'may have inspired MI6 source's Iraqi weapons claim' 

Iraqis Protest to Demand Elections after Invasion

There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind.
Napoleon Bonaparte

"Through clever and constant application of propaganda people can be made to see paradise as hell, and also the other way around, to consider the most wretched sort of life as paradise."

Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, part I chapter X

In view of the primitive simplicity of their minds they more easily fall a victim to a big lie than to a little one, since they themselves lie in little things, but would be ashamed of lies that were too big.
Such a falsehood will never enter their heads and they will not be able to believe in the possibility of such monstrous effrontery and infamous misrepresentation in others; yes, even when enlightened on the subject, they will long doubt and waver, and continue to accept at least one of these causes as true.
Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, part I chapter X

I shall give a propagandist cause for starting the war never mind whether it be plausible or not. The victor shall not be asked later on whether we told the truth or not.
Adolf Hitler, speech to inner circle, Aug. 22, 1939

Wagging the Dog links

Science Links

(a good site to search with credible info and easily digestible articles) Evolution

Institute for Creation Research

Dr. Duane T. Gish
pre-eminent creationist

Creationist Response to DNA

Recent Peer Reviewed Article by Grant's on Galapagos Finches

Local Evolution in Progress
Uncle Bacteria?
The Genetic Archaeology of Race
NAS on Evolution vs. Creationism
Scientific American Response to Creationist Arguments

Origin of Species by Charles Darwin

UFO/Alien Abduction
An Astronomer's Personal Statement on UFOs
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Mars or Europa: Where Does Life Exist?
New York Times: SETI article
Abduction by Aliens or Sleep Paralysis?
Nova:Kidnapped by UFOs?
Alien Autopsy--Faked or Fiction?

(I have no memory of this picture being taken)

Alien Abduction Experience & Research

Abduction test

PEER | Program for Extraordinary Experience Research | (Dr. John Mack's website)

Harvard Reaction to Mack
UFO City (UFO news)
Animal Intelligence
The Truth About Cats and Frogs; We Do Animals No Favor When We Think They Are Like Us
Time: Can Animals Think?
BBC: Overview of Animal Experiments Debate
Koko's Webpage

***Researchers Journal of talking to Koko***

Studying Wild Gorillas
***Washoe's webpage***

The Jane Goodall Institute

Animal Intelligence: How Brainy Are They?
PBS: Inside the Animal Mind
The Foundation for Biomedical Research
Americans for Medical Progress

PETA primate Experiment videos

American Anti-Vivisection Society
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

Response to Animal Rights Arguments in Medical Journal

Scientific American: Animal research is vital to medicine
Full text no longer available, but you can
check dates and get print version in the library.

Looking Through Cat's Eyes
PBS Frontline: Organ farm

Language and Literature Links

Internet Movie Database: Top Movies Rotten Tomatoes: Top Movies
Roger Ebert
(movie reviews to refresh your memory)

Statistics Links

***Bureau of Justice Statistics*** Statistical Resources on the Web

List of Poll Links
(pretty exhaustive comparison of polls on many issues)

Government Links

***Bureau of Justice Statistics*** Death Penalty Information Center
CQ Researcher Index
PBS: Frontline: "The Case for Innocence"
Innocence Project
PBS: Frontline: "Drug Wars"
What Is the Matter With Mary Jane?
Yahoo! Death Penalty
Yahoo! Drug Policy
Frontline index
The Canadian Foundation for Drug Policy


Everyone is entitled to their own opinions, but not their own facts.
Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan

We can have an honest disagreement, but when we can't even agree on the facts, someone is lying.
Michael J. Dixon

Facts are stubborn things and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence.

John Adams, Arguments in Defense of the Soldiers
in the Boston Massacre Trials
, December 1770

Research Starting Points

Ventura College
CQ Researcher & Proquest

CQ how to

***Congressional Research Service ***

better than average news

The Guardian
(respected British paper)

(a source the rest of the world trusts)

Al Jazeera
(like the BBC, but closer to the action)

Democracy Now!
90.7 FM 6-7 am, 9-10 am, M-F The best hour of news
everyday it's on

(documentary series on
PBS, lots of foreign policy,
corporate issues, etc.)

History News Network

should more accurately be
called history AND news.
Historians and experts
post articles on both.

Pick a President

Project Vote Smart
(a good starting point for
comparing candidates records) Thomas Legislative Info
(government source of links)
New York Times
Congressional Guide

Michael Moore

Fahrenheit 9/11 Notes + Sources

Michael Moore Homepage
(has press and critics)

Spinsanity analysis

Election 2000

2004 vote suppression in Florida

BBC Florida 2004

BBC TV News story
on purge of black voters
Diebold Memos Disclose
Florida 2000 E-Voting Fraud
(see link to CBS News internal
review of election coverage)
US Commission on Civil Rights
Reports on 2000 Election
(discusses black voter purge,
as seen in the video in class)
Examples of Black Voters
Turned away from Polls

Flaws in 2004 felon list

Civil Rights Commission Urges
Criminal Investigation in Florida

Electronic Voting

GAO study on electronic voting

Brief summary of GAO findings

Newsweek on Electronic Voting
Black Box
(the starting point. Bev Harris is
the investigator who first broke this
and has done the best research
University of Iowa Computer Science Department analysis of Diebold flaws
Diebold head says he will do anything to get Bush re-elected
Vietnam Vet ahead in polls loses by 13% on Diebold

This is long, so here's a crucial excerpt:
In Georgia, Republican Saxby Chambliss repeatedly questioned the patriotism of Democratic incumbent and triple amputee war hero Max Cleland during his campaign. Chambliss made the absurd claim that he was more patriotic than Cleland even though he had avoided service in the Vietnam war with a "medical deferment". A Poll taken by the Atlanta Journal Constitution published on November 1st, just five days before the election, showed support for Georgia Democratic Senator Max Cleland at 49%, clearly 5% ahead of Republican Saxby Chambliss at 44%. Many People in Georgia, particularly veterans, had been angered by the crude remarks made by Chambliss and they turned out in record numbers to vote for Cleland. When the 'Diebold' Electronic Voting tally was made public it stunned and confused the Georgia voters. Saxby Chambliss had won with 53% of the vote compared to Max Cleland's 46%. It represented a 13% pro-Republican swing that seemed to materialize out of cyberspace. The victories of Chambliss and Hagel, along with the tragic October 25, 2002 plane crash that killed Democratic Senator Paul Wellstone, virtually guaranteed Republican control of the Senate.

More example of odd results using touch screens
(with links) how the vote count can be manipulated

Media Censorship/Consolidation/Bias

Project Censored

Press freedom index

Censored SNL Toon on Media Consolidation

Disinfopedia an encyclopedia of propaganda,
PR, and political BS
"viral marketing" is
worth a paper by itself

Urban Legends Reference Pages
PR firms have figured out how urban legends spread and use the same mechanism, so there's a lot of overlap

PR Watch
watching those who fake the news

PR Watch on Kuwaiti Incubator story
a good example of how PR fakes the news
Council of Public Relations Firms
(these are the guys who actually do it)

Fox News Producer on Bias
Lie or Cut Story Critical of Advertiser
Columbia Journalism Review
checks bias and accuracy
fact checks and analyzes
primarily right wing sources
Fairness and Accurary in Reporting
A great overall resource for
media issues. Takes on left and right.
fact checks and analysis
emphasis on political ads
at the moment

Media Channel
covers all the issues
Free Press Media Reform
activist website, but
covers all the issues
The Center for Public Integrity
primarily on government corruption,
but a lot of stuff on media (you have
to buy the politicians to consolidate)

Institute for Public Accuracy
in depth research on stories in the news

devastating analysis of
the fair and balanced network

***Outfoxed trailer***
funny and offensive especially
why there aren't more black cops

Primary Documents on Foreign Policy
***good for all topics except maybe energy*** Frontline

Iraqi Threat

"Allow the president to invade a neighboring nation whenever he shall deem it necessary to repel an invasion ... and you allow him to make war at pleasure. If today he should choose to say he thinks it necessary to invade Canada to prevent the British from invading us, how could you stop him? You may say to him, 'I see no probability of the British invading us,' but he will say to you, 'Be silent: I see it if you don't.'"
Congressman Abraham Lincoln, 1848
Frontline: 10/03 Iraq story links

Retired Pentagon Analyst Returned to Work After 9/11
Now Critical of use of Iraq intel
British Cabinet Member Says Threat Faked
Blair Knew Iraq not a Threat says his Foreign Minister
Diplomats & Military Commanders for Change
non-partisan career diplomats and Pentagon
officials critical of Bush foreign policy and
intelligence abuses in an unprecedented public letter

Wilson on fake uranium letter

CIA director's letter to Senate before Iraq War

Pentagon Intel said no WMD Fall before war Intelligence Insiders Speak out on Iraq
Interview with Producer of UNCOVERED
a documentary comparing Bush claims about
Iraq with what Intelligence told him

Cooperative Research Iraq Bibliograghy
(some links, but an excellent outline of issues
and sources you can find yourself on proquest)

Rumsfeld, Saddam and WMD

Rumsfeld's handshake with Saddam and
primary documents on why he was there

Pew Polls of Iraq and world

Gallup poll of Iraqis Spring 2004

Coalition Provisional Authority Poll of Iraqis

What do we have for comparison?

US Nukes

Nuke Delivery systems

9/11: what did we know?

TV show on WTC attack BEFORE 9/11
Retroactively classified testimony

Four 9/11 Moms Battle Bush

9/11 Families Questions

9/11 Commission

***9/11 Commission Report***

Saudi Money to Al Qaeda

Pakistani Money & Intelligence
Contact with 9/11 Hijackers

The Man Who Knew
(An FBI agent who hunted alQaeda,
was blocked by superiors, quit in
frustration, and went to work at the
WTC, where he was killed on 9/11)
Congressional 9/11 Report
Congressional 9/11 Report
(html format, easier to access, but
not directly from the government)
Cooperative Research 9/11 Bibliograghy
(some links, but an excellent outline of issues
and sources you can find yourself on proquest)

Causes of Terrorism
BBC 911 Causes overview
BBC 911 Details
Frontline: Interview with Osama bin Laden
Library of Congress Country Studies
Hunting for Bin Laden
Islam: Empire of Faith (PBS)
Yes, This Is About Islam
Al Jazeera
(like CNN in the Arab world)
Arab News 9/11
(their analysis, POV)

Business & Intervention

"There is only one thing in this world, and that is to keep acquiring money and more money, power and more power. All the rest is meaningless."

Napoleon Bonaparte

MARKETS; Oil Economics Lubricates Push for War

Dollar vs. Euro showdown in Middle East

Intervention & democracy/nation building, etc.

“There is such a thirst for gain [among military suppliers]…that it is enough to make one curse their own Species, for possessing so little virtue and patriotism.”
President George Washington, 1778

“I don’t want to see a single war millionaire created in the United States as a result of this world disaster.”

President Franklin D. Roosevelt, during World War II
War Is a Racket
Major General Smedley Butler
two time Medal of Honor winner
He tells the real cause of every
military campaign he fought in

President Eisenhower's
Farewell Address:

In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together.
(see section IV)

Confessions of an Economic Hitman
One of the players explains why Third World
countries have crushing debt and who benefits

***US Military Interventions***
Great list that gives causes, propaganda, and inciting incident for wars. Somewhat biased, but mostly accurate

Speeches and Eyewitnesses to Intervention
***Mark Twain on Philippines is great, and
Lodge on need for expansion is very relevant
Recent Actions re. Turkey
New York Times Special Report: The CIA in Iran
Pentagon Papers (on Vietnam)

corporate watchdog

Corpwatch Links
Great direct links to corporate webpages
coverage of research subtopics like
globalization, WTO, war profiteers

Israel ***Frontline: Battle for the Holy Land***
***How Will Israel Survive?***
Major article in Newsweek,
looks at background and future

additional links

Remove spaces and add @ to email me:

E-Mail: migueljdixon (at)